Gills are very efficient at absorbing oxygen from the water. One “trick” to this ability is the countercurrent, in which blood and water flow in opposite directions. Explain how this works.
Many aquatic animals have special paddles/organs that brush water over their gills. This is very important, because by doing this, the aquatic animal can breathe. The water moving over their gills provides a fresh supply of oxygen. Many fish move the water across their gills by swimming, like sharks. Some have special organs that open and close so that oxygen can pass through. You can see this in action by observing a fish that is closing and opening it’s mouth. They open their mouth to let the oxygen pass through, and then close it and expel the water through their gills. All of these methods require pushing water across the gills of the animal. This is important because the water, as it’s passing over the gills, is loosing it’s oxygen as it passes by. The oxygen is absorbed by the blood that is passing through the gills, going to opposite direction of the water. This cycle is repeated so that aquatic animals may survive underwater. It’s like if you get on one train and your friend gets on another train and both trains are traveling in opposite directions, but eventually ride next to each other, and your friend tosses something to you as the trains pass. That’s a bad explanation but you get the gist.
Biology Revised: Lesson 150
“In what ways did revenge fit into World War II?”
Revenge. Such a nasty word. A nasty word to describe either to take back something that’s yours or to do what someone did upon you ten-fold. Revenge is never the answer to any problem. Why? Because you’ll never feel like you’ve exacted justice on the person that is at the center of your revenge rampage. If someone killed your mother in front of you, what would you do to that person? You’d probably try to kill them too. But it wouldn’t be enough to kill them, would it? You’d have to make them feel the pain that you do. And even if you do succeed in doing that, you have already become a monster that is much greater than the killer. Exacting revenge is an option, but it is a risky one. You cannot chose the path of revenge. The path of revenge is path of destruction. However, in war, there is a different mindset. In war, revenge is the go to option. In war, revenge is how you survive. Revenge consumes the soul. It’s what soldiers use to keep on fighting when one of their own is down. It is their duty. Revenge upon the ones who killed their kin. Revenge upon the ones who destroyed their towns. Revenge upon the ones who turned their lives into nothing but pain and agony. Revenge upon the traitors who thought they could escape the war. Revenge upon those who fired upon the innocent. Revenge. Is. The answer. How could it not be?
Western Civ. 2, Lesson 145
“Did World War II become more brutal as time went on?”
Unfortunately, yes, it did become more deadly. Bombing and bloodshed and countless civilian deaths were recorded as the war went on. So much destruction and torment befell everyone who took part in it. But did it become more ‘brutal’? Brutal is described as blunt force, like a pillar toppling down upon an unsuspecting bike rider. I would use the word ‘tragic’ but it seems that there was so much death going on that that word hardly scratches the surface. I guess the word I’m looking for is ‘inhuman’. But if we must use the word that is in the question, yes, the war did become more brutal as time went on. It’s like birth pains; they starts out painful and then go from painful to “I welcome death” and then it starts to ease out a little. Next week, we’ll see how this war finally ended.
Western Civ. 2, Lesson 140
“Suppose you found the bones of an unidentified animal. How could you learn about what the animal ate?”
A long walk upon a deserted highway has gotten you lost. You cannot remember where you came from or even who you are. But you can remember one thing. How to identify an animals tooth. It’s a strange thing to remember but you recall it well. While shuffling along the road, you come across an animal’s skull. You squat down and peer at it. It has large eye sockets and an elongated jaw. Probably a horse, you think, but just to be sure, you look at it’s teeth. Long rows of molars in the back and large buck teeth in the front. Yup. It’s a horse. Another fact pops into your house as you recite out loud, “Horses are Heterodont, which means that they have different types of teeth. Most mammals, including humans, are heterodont. Cats (who are also heterdont) have teeth that are designed to fit right between their prays (most likely a little mouse) vertebrae, thereby snapping it in two, killing it instantly. Molars are used for grinding up the food before swallowing. Some heterodont’s have different teeth during different stages in their life. That is how archeologists can find out how old buried human remains are as well as what they ate.” You look around the deserted highway and sit down in the middle of the road. You blink a few times. You hear a car blare their horn.
Your eyes shoot open as you fall of off your bed with a thump. Then you remember. Your science quiz is tomorrow. You were having a dream. You get back into bed and smile. Yup. You’re going to ace that quiz.
Revised: Biology Lesson 140
In what sense did World War II become “global”?
Authors Note: Yo. I’m not doing too hot and it’s been a really rough week. And I’m almost positive that you’d want to read a simple answer rather than a long and complicated one filled with words from Thesaurus.com. So here we go.
It really started to become global around 1941 but we’re going to focus on what led up to it first. But first, remember that Germany and the Soviet Union had a peace treaty. It started in Europe, with Germany attacking Poland. The Germans literally just walked over there and attacked. The Soviets kinda hung back a little because they didn’t want to get too involved. And you can tell from the dates. The Germans attacked on September 1 while the Soviets attacked on September 17, finishing up the war. After the Polish war, there was the ‘phony’ war, which wasn’t really ‘phony’ at all. Basically, the Soviets attacked Finland and, although the Finlands lost, they were mostly able to keep their independence. Then the Axis power invaded Western and then Eastern Europe. The Western Europe invasion led into an attack upon Belgium and France and both of their defenses. In the end, everything in Western Europe except Italy, Britain, and Spain was being incorporated into Hitler’s empire. Because of this, the Germans just roamed free over Western Europe. The Britains tried to avoid them as much as possible, and that eventually led to the Battle of Dunkirk. After the battle, Italy attacked France. And then there was the Battle of Britain where the Germans bombed British cities, ships, and factories. There were deadly wars in the skies that lasted about 3-4 months. It wreaked havoc on 40,000 British citizens. There were major casualties on both the British side and the German side. Then there was the German invasion of Yugoslavia. Over in America, Franklin Delano Roosevelt said that the American soldiers weren’t going into foreign territory. But he really wanted to fight the Germans. Many people supported the Americans not going into war. At the time, the United States of America was the largest producer of anything and everything in the world. Forces in America joined together to form a lot of organizations and Charles Limburg tried to keep the United States neutral. But he failed.
The treaty between the Russians and Germans was broken when the Germans launched an attack on them. But Russia had been making deals with the Japanese not to attack each other, should the Soviet Union be attacked. The attack was called the Barborossa Attack and it took place in 1941. It was the largest military campaign in history. And then, also in 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and the United States was officially involved in the war. That’s basically how World War II became global.
Western Civ 2, Lesson 135
“What’s one of the problems from World War I that helped contribute to the outbreak of World War II?”
Considering the information that I have gathered through over two weeks worth of lessons, I have deciphered the following. The most serious event from World War I was the state that the Germans were left in. Because of this state, World War II was possible. With the mistrust between one country and the demanding of respect from another, all it took was a powerful voice to send everyone over the edge and into madness.
Western Civ 2, Lesson 130
“What does it mean to say a creature is “intelligent?” Describe some of the intelligent behavior of various animals, and compare it to human intelligence.”
Intelligence. Something that is strived for in our society everyday. To say a creature is ‘intelligent’ is a very big compliment in our society today. If you see dog fetch the right item for another human, you say, “Oh, she’s a smart one!” but if you see a dog unlock a door you say, “Oh, she’s so intelligent!”. Ok, granted no one really talks like that anymore but we’re moving on! You consider yourself to be at the top of the food chain, as a human. And as a human, you have the greatest level of intelligence, right? Well, yes and no. Let’s take some primates as example. A capuchin monkey can be trained to be a servant for the needy. Gorillas can be trained to speak in sign language as well as do many ‘human’ things. This is why people have believed that we evolved from apes. Apes aren’t the only animals to be considered very intelligent. Aquatic creatures such as dolphins have been known to show off their smarts to scientists and tourists alike. Crows, when they cannot crack nuts correctly, drop them in the mess of traffic to be cracked open. They then wait until the traffic stops and go to eat up the nut.
So you see, yes, there are probably animals out there that are more intelligent than you. Intelligence can be shown throughout many different abilities possessed by many different animals. For an animal to be intelligent, it must surpass the normal behavioral traits shown by other animals like it. For a human to be intelligent, they need to study and get a degree to show it off to other people. No, an animal cannot get a degree or make a career as a Physician. But they can do many other things like humans.
Biology Revised, Lesson 130