“What were the reasons behind the conflicts between the emperors and the popes during this period?”
The conflict between these two groups of people actually isn’t that far off from what the world disagrees on today. The popes wanted a good emperor who respected the people and obeyed the law, along with ruling their respected properties, and not trying to completely rule over the Roman Empire. The people and the popes wanted to be as independent as possible, while still having a ruler. Meanwhile, the emperors only cared about one thing. Power. The emperors would swear to the popes that they would follow the rules and be a fantastic ruler. Then, once they became emperor, they would throw all of their promises. This, naturally, caused major conflict. The emperors were so full of themselves, that they refuse to admit that they were doing something wrong. And as you can see, the various rulers around the world haven’t changed much.
Western Civ. 140